The primary motor cortex also plays a part in conditions such as Tourette's syndrome. So the scientists say understanding contagious yawning could also help understand those disorders too. Contagious yawning is a common form of echophenomena - the automatic imitation of someone else's words or actions. Echophenomena is also seen in Tourette's, as well as in other conditions, including epilepsy and autism. To test what's happening in the brain during the phenomenon, scientists monitored 36 volunteers while they watched others yawning. In the study, published in the journal Current Biology, some were told it was fine to yawn while others กระเป๋าเป้เดินทาง were told to stifle the urge. The urge to yawn was down to how each person's primary motor cortex worked - its "excitability". And, using external transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), it was also possible to increase "excitability" in the motor cortex and therefore people's propensity for contagious yawns. Image caption The researchers used transcranial magnetic stimulation in the study Georgina Jackson, professor of cognitive neuropsychology who worked on the study, said the finding could have wider uses: "In Tourette's, if we could reduce the excitability we might reduce the ticks, and that's what we are working on." Prof Stephen Jackson, who also worked on the research, added: "If we can understand how alterations in cortical excitability give rise to neural disorders we can potentially reverse them. "We are looking for potential non-drug, personalised treatments, using TMS that might be effective in modulating imbalances in the brain networks." Dr Andrew Gallup, a psychologist at State University of New York at Albany, who has carried out research into the connection between empathy and yawning, said using TMS was a "novel approach" to the study of contagious yawning.
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In a letter to her mother Olga, a desperate Dapirka said she was ready for any decision by the court. She wrote: “Don’t worry about me. I am fine. I am ready for any end. I hope you will manage to visit me. “I’ve not seen you for four years. I miss you so much! Please take good care of your health.” Her lawyer Sunkar Nurmagambetov said: “We have received Maria’s appeal. She addressed her family and said that she has not lost faith yet, but realistically, she understands there might be scenarios like a death sentence or life term.” Pro-Kremlin news site Mash in Russia published a picture purporting to be ‘Nick’, the man she accuses of framing her after they met in Thailand. The Nigerian media has claimed the same man used different fake names to dupe dozens of other women with model looks to act as drugs mules. His real name is not known. “What started as a beautiful love story for these innocent girls with model looks ended up in a nightmare on the death row on drug-trafficking charges,’ reported NAIJ.com two years ago.
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